1) I hit a ball to the base of a tree that had a mound of wood chip mulch protecting the base. My ball was resting against the wood chip mulch in a way that I would not be able to follow through on my stroke. The tree itself was not an issue. Can I move this ball back a club length without a stroke penalty so I can take a normal swing? This scenario ended up costing me three strokes on a par 4.
2) After heavy rains, I sliced my tee shot over a serious puddle that isn't a declared water hazard. The ball rested on a good piece of rough about 2" to the right of this deep puddle. I could not address the ball without standing in water that was deeper than my ankles. Can I move this ball a club length to the right (away from the hole) so I can address the ball and stay dry?
3) Tee shot hooks and comes to a rest against the junior tee markers about 200 yards down the fairway on a par 5. Can I move the ball a club length back or to the left (away from the hole) without incurring a penalty shot?
4) My favorite. After hitting the edge of the green on an unfamiliar course, I find that there is a sprinkler head on the green that my ball happens to be sitting on. This sprinkler head is right at the edge of the green, and moving the ball away from the hole will effectively move my ball off of the green. What do I do?
5) Finally...more heavy rains have turned a sand trap into a water hazard. I do not know this when I tee off, and I happen to plop my ball right into the middle of the water. How can I play this?